The chemistry of cosmetics Private2 months ago - Real estate - Bathinda - 29 views
Cosmetics are not a modern invention. Humans have used various substances to alter their appearance or accentuate their features for at least 10,000 years, and possibly a lot longer.
Women in Ancient Egypt used kohl, a substance containing powdered galena (lead sulphide—PbS) to darken their eyelids, and Cleopatra is said to have bathed in milk to whiten and soften her skin. By 3000 B.C men and women in China had begun to stain their fingernails with colours according to their social class, while Greek women used poisonous lead carbonate (PbCO3) to achieve a pale complexion. Clays were ground into pastes for cosmetic use in traditional African societies and indigenous Australians still use a wide range of crushed rocks and minerals to create body paint for ceremonies and initiations.
Tianeptine is a tricyclic anti-depressant that is also known to have opioid receptor activity. We present two fatal cases of tianeptine intoxication in Texas in which tianeptine was used recreationally. The first case involved a 28-year-old white male found alone on the floor of his locked residence. He had a history of drug abuse but no other toxicological findings. The second case involved a 30-year-old white male found on the floor of the bathroom in his home. Drug paraphernalia and bags labeled as tianeptine powder were found at both scenes. In response to the first case, our laboratory developed a method for quantitation of tianeptine by LC–MS-MS. This method was then validated according to SWGTOX guidelines for specificity, calibration model, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision, ion suppression, and carryover. This method was successfully used to determine tianeptine concentrations in postmortem blood in two cases.
Microneedles Could Enable Painless Injections and Blood Draws
Many microneedle products are moving toward commercialization for rapid, painless draws of blood or interstitial fluid and for use in diagnostic testing or health monitoring. Tiny holes made by the needles induce a local change in pressure in the epidermis or dermis that forces interstitial fluid or blood into a collection device. If the needles are coupled to biosensors, the devices can, within minutes, directly measure biological markers indicative of health or disease status, such as glucose, cholesterol, alcohol, drug by-products or immune cells.
Here's the big caveat: many of those exciting supplement studies were observational—they didn't test a particular supplement against a placebo (inactive pill) in a controlled setting. The results of more stringent randomized controlled trials haven't yielded the same good news.
"Often the enthusiasm for these vitamins and supplements outpaces the evidence. And when the rigorous evidence is available from randomized controlled trials, often the results are at odds with the findings of the observational studies," explains Dr. JoAnn Manson, chief of preventive medicine at Brigham and Women's Hospital, professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, and principal investigator of a large randomized trial known as VITAL (Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial).
Suspicious and shady sellers peddle sex enhancement medicines at makeshift stalls on the street or through online sources, exploiting the insecurities and anxieties of consumers. They may make exaggerated claims that their products are “all natural” and can "prolong your sexual stamina" or miraculously cure medical conditions such as erectile dysfunction or impotency. However, the risks from taking these products may lead to serious side effects, including death.They are not guaranteed to work. The claims made regarding the effects of illegal products should be viewed with caution, as they are not backed by scientific evidence or clinical studies.
Medical conditions require proper diagnosis and treatment. There are many causes for erectile dysfunction, including chronic illnesses, psychological factors and poor lifestyle. A medically trained professional can help to diagnose the root cause and work with you on appropriate treatments. In addition, medicines used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction are prescription-only medicines and should only be used under strict medical supervision as they may not be suitable for individuals with certain medical conditions and can cause serious side effects.