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The Science of Heat Transfer: What Is Conduction? Private

2 months ago Multimedia Warangal   22 views

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    Heat is an interesting form of energy. Not only does it sustain life, make us comfortable and help us prepare our food, but understanding its properties is key to many fields of scientific research. For example, knowing how heat is transferred and the degree to which different materials can exchange thermal energy governs everything from building heaters and understanding seasonal change to sending ships into space.

    Heat can only be transferred through three means: [url=http://www.lyyrcable.com/bare-conductor/all-aluminum-conductors/]conduction[/url], convection and radiation. Of these, conduction is perhaps the most common, and occurs regularly in nature. In short, it is the transfer of heat through physical contact. It occurs when you press your hand onto a window pane, when you place a pot of water on an active element, and when you place an iron in the fire.

    This transfer occurs at the molecular level — from one body to another — when heat energy is absorbed by a surface and causes the molecules of that surface to move more quickly. In the process, they bump into their neighbors and transfer the energy to them, a process which continues as long as heat is still being added.

    The process of heat conduction depends on four basic factors: the temperature gradient, the cross section of the materials involved, their path length, and the properties of those materials.

    A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes in a specific location. Temperature always flows from the hottest to coldest source, due to the fact that cold is nothing but the absence of heat energy. This transfer between bodies continues until the temperature difference decays, and a state known as thermal equilibrium occurs.

    Cross-section and path length are also important factors. The greater the    size of the material involved in the transfer, the more heat is needed to warm it. Also, the more surface area that is exposed to open air, the greater likelihood for heat loss. So shorter objects with a smaller cross-section are the best means of minimizing the loss of heat energy.

    Last, but certainly not least, is the physical properties of the materials involved. Basically, when it comes to conducting heat, not all substances are created equal. Metals and stone are considered good conductors since they can speedily transfer heat, whereas materials like wood, paper, air, and cloth are poor conductors of heat.

    These conductive properties are rated based on a “coefficient” which is measured relative to silver. In this respect, silver has a coefficient of heat conduction of 100, whereas other materials are ranked lower. These include copper (92), iron (11), water (0.12), and wood (0.03). At the opposite end of the spectrum is a perfect vacuum, which is incapable of conducting heat, and is therefore ranked at zero.

    Materials that are poor conductors of heat are called insulators. Air, which has a conduction coefficient of .006, is an exceptional insulator because it is capable of being contained within an enclosed space. This is why artificial insulators make use of air compartments, such as double-pane glass windows which are used for cutting heating bills. Basically, they act as buffers against heat loss.

    Feather, fur, and natural fibers are all examples of natural insulators. These are materials that allows birds, mammals and human beings to stay warm. Sea otters, for example, live in ocean waters that are often very cold and their luxuriously thick fur keeps them warm. Other sea mammals like sea lions, whales and penguins rely on thick layers of fat (aka. blubber) – a very poor conductor – to prevent heat loss through their skin.

    LV & MV Aerial Bundle Cable (ABC)

    Aerial Bundle [url=http://www.lyyrcable.com/aerial-bundled-cables/lv-abc-cable/]Cables[/url], often referred to as Aerial Bundled Conductors or simply ABC, are cables for    overhead line power, so called for combining multiple single core cables together. With applications including temporary power distribution to    street lighting    and secondary pole-to-pole service cables, they are lightweight stranded aluminium conductors, both single core and multi-cores. Whilst Aerial Bundle Cables are used in    rural power distribution    in some countries, they are more commonly used in temporary power installations such as on construction sites. As insulated cables they are often preferred to bare conductors which are installed and separated by air gaps but where sparks and shorts in the event of high winds may cause resulting bushfires in dry climates or risk nearby property. The XLPE insulation material, and where relevant the sheathing material, allows the ABC to be tightly bundled together – additional steel wire supports similar to those in    ACSR    can also be incorporated as catenary wires .


    Our Low Voltage ABC are manufactured in accordance with a range of national standards - British standard    BS7870, French standard NF C33 209, Australasian standard AS/NZS 3560 Part 1, and IEC standards IEC 60502-1, TNB Specification, and HD 626 S1. They have a voltage rating of 0.6/1kV. With the insulation it also meets Class II according to IEC 61140 in protecting against electric shock. Aerial Bundle Cables have an operating temperature range of -40oC to +80oC and can be installed in temperatures as low as -20oC. These ABC are unscreened and without an additional outer sheath.